Sakonnin Masu Karatu (2020) (13)

Tsarin Sadarwar Wayar Salula

An buga wannan makala ne a Jaridar AMINIYA ta ranar Jumma’a, 9 ga watan Oktoba, 2020.

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(Ci gaban amsar tambayar makon jiya)

Home Location Register (HLR)

Bangaren Home Location Register (HLR), shi ne mai lura da dukkan bayanan da suka shafi layi ko lambar wayar da kake amfani da ita a wayar salularka; yaushe ka fara amfani da lambar?  Nawa ka zuba a ciki tunda ka saya?  Wasu layuka ka kira?  Kai, a ina ma kake a halin da ake Magana?  Idan mai karatu bai san wannan ba, ya dubi fuskar wayar salularsa, zai ga tana nuna masa sunan bigiren da yake; a Area 1 ne ko Wuse ko Kano ko Kaduna; Unguwa Uku ne ko Sallare ko BUK?  Duk inda kake, Home Location Register ce ke dauke da bayanin inda kake.  Kuma wannan zai rika nunawa (idan ka tsara wayarka ta rika nunawa kenan).  Har wa yau, aikin wannan bangare ne ya rika hada ka da wanda kake son Magana da shi yayin da ka buga lambarsa; ya kuma rika isar da masu nemanka ta lambar da kake amfani da ita a wannan lokaci. Haka idan kazo karshen maganan da kake yi da abokin maganarka, Home Location Register ce za ta tsayar da sadarwar (idan ka kashe wayarka ko abokin maganarka ya kashe tasa).  Wannan kadan cikin aikin wannan bangare kenan dake cibiyar Mobile Switching Center (MSC), wato babban zangon sadarwa da kowane kamfanin sadarwa ta wayar salula ke amfani da ita.

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Sai kuma bangaren Visitor Location Register (VLR), wanda aikinsa ne ya taskance lambobin wani zangon da ba nasa ba, a matsayin “masu ziyara” kenan.  Misali, idan a Kaduna kake, Unguwar Sarki, sai kaje ziyara a Bauchi, kuma wayar salularka na da layin MTN, kana zuwa, Visitor Location Register za ta sheda ka, cewa bako ne kai, duk da cewa kamfanin daya ce.  Hujja a nan kuwa shi ne, don dukkan bayanan da lambarka ta kunsa suna zangon sadarwa (wato Cell Tower) ne da ke Unguwar Sarki na Kaduna.  Kana shigowa sai Visitor Location Register ta taskance bayananka na wucin-gadi, har ka gama abin da ya kawo ka, ka tafi.  Iya zamanka a Bauchi, za ka samu sadarwa da wadanda suke wasu wurare kuma kai ma za a iya samunka.  Haka idan kana tsarin Roaming ne, (wato tsarin dake bayar da daman wuce kadadan yanayin sadarwan kamfanin dake sadar da kai, don ci gaba da samun hanyar sadarwa ba tare da matsala ba) da zarar ka bar wannan bigire, sai a share bayanan lambarka dake wannan taska.

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Authentication Center (AuC)

Bangaren Authentication Center rumbun bayanai ne na nau’ukan kalmomin shiga da masu lambobin sadarwa ke tsare layukansu dasu.  Misali, idan ka sanya wa layin sadarwarka PIN Code, to kalmomin da ka shigar na zarcewa ne kai tsaye zuwa Authentication Center.  Wannan wani nau’i ne na tsaro ga masu layukan, inda babu wanda zai iya ganin asiran da suka taskance a layukan sadarwarsu sai su ko kuma wanda suka ga daman bashi kalmomin da suka shigar.  Har wa yau, idan kana da PIN Code babu wanda zai iya katse maka sadarwarka ta kowace hanya ce, a halin da kake Magana da wani.  Kowace irin na’ura yayi amfani da ita kuwa.  Ire-iren wadannan hanyoyi sun hada da PIN Code, da PUK Code, da kuma Security Code.  Dukkansu a taskance suke cikin wannan rumbu ta Authentication Center.

Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

Wannan bangare ne ke dauke da dukkan sunayen wayoyin salular dake dauke da layi ko lambar kamfanin sadarwan.  Ma’ana, idan ka sayi layin MTN, ka dora a kan wayar salularka nau’in Samsum Galaxy J6, misali, wannan bangare ne zai taskance nau’in wayar da kake amfani da ita, ya tabbata mai kyau ce wacce aka kera ta amfani da ka’idojin sadarwa ta duniya, mai kuma dauke da lambobin sadarwa ta duniya, wato International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).  Idan ba mai kyau bace, ko kuma bata cika wannan ka’ida ba, wannan bangare na Equipment Identity Register zai lika mata alamar “Invalid”, ma’ana wacce bata cika ka’ida ba, kuma ba za a iya amfani da ita ba.  Haka idan aka sace maka wayar salularka mai dauke da layin sadarwanka a kai, kana iya sanar da kamfanin sadarwar wayar salularka, za su lika mata wannan alama ta “Invalid”.  A wasu lokuta ma suna iya bata wayar idan kana so, ya zama barawon ya yi aikin banza kenan; ba zai iya amfana da ita ba.  Amma ba duk kamfanin sadarwa ke yin haka ba, saboda tsoron keta da wani na iya ma wayar wani.  Don babu aminci a tsakaninmu kuma mutane ba su bin doka, shi yasa.

Wadannan bangarori, a takaice su ne manya kuma muhimman bangarorin da ke dauke cikin wannan babban zangon kamfanin sadarwa, wato Mobile Switching Center (MSC).  Da fatan ka gamsu.  Na gode.

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