Tasirin Ci Gaban Kimiyya da Fasaha Ga Rayuwa da Zamantakewar Dan Adam a Duniya (2)

An buga wannan makala ne a Jaridar AMINIYA ta ranar jumma’a, 20 ga watan Disamba, 2019.

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Ma’anonin Kalmomi a Warware

Cikin waxannan jerin makaloli da muka fara kwararowa makon jiya, zamu fuskantar da bayaninmu ne kan manyan fannoni guda uku.  Na farko shi ne ci gaban da aka samu kuma ake ci gaba da samu a fannin kimiyyar xabi’ar halitta, wato Genetics kenan.  A wannan bangare bayaninmu zai dogara ne kacokam kan irin sauye-sauyen da ake samu wajen jirkitawa ko “gyara” tsari da kintsin xabi’ar xan adam.  Bangare na biyu da zamu mayar da hankalinmu shi ne bangaren kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa, da irin ci gaban da aka samu kuma ake samu a kai.  Sai kuma bayani kan fasahohin da ake amfani dasu wajen aiwatar da waxannan sauye-sauye.  A karshe dai bayaninmu zai tike ne kan tasirin hakan ga rayuwa da al’adu da kuma zamantakewar xan adam a wannan duniya.  Amma kafin nan, zan so mu fahimci ma’anonin kalmomin da zasu ta maimaituwa a yayin da muke bayani kan sauye-sauyen da ake samu a bangaren kimiyyar xabi’ar halitta, wato: “Genetics” kenan.  Bayan dake tafe dai tunatarwa na ga wanda ya taba karanta makalarmu ta farko mai take: “Tsarin Gadon Xabi’u da Siffofin Halitta”.

Wannan sashen bincike yana da muhimmanci, domin ya kunshi matakin farko ne da zai taimaka wa mai karatu fahimtar sauran abubuwan da ke tafe.  A takaice dai ma iya kiransa “Tubalin Fahimta.”

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Kalmar farko ita ce: “Kwayar Halitta” wacce a harshen turancin Malaman Kimiyya suke kira da suna “Cell”.  Wannan ita ce asalin rayuwa da duk wani halitta mai rai baki daya; daga dabbobi zuwa mutane da bishiyoyi. Duk wani abu mai rai a tare da shi, to asalinsa daga wannan kawayar halitta ne, wato “Cell”.  Wannan kwayar halitta ido ba ya iya riskanta, kuma Allah ya watsa ire-irensu da yawa a cikin jikin xan adam, misali.  Duk bayanan da za su zo kan tsarin gadon xabi’un halitta suna dogaro ne kacokam kan wannan tubali, wato kwayar halitta.  Sai kalmar “Cell Membrane”, wato “Tantanin Kwayar Halitta” kenan na can ciki.  Wannan tantani aikinshi ne bayar da kariya ga dukkan madaukan da ke cikin Kwayar Halitta.  Kuma shi ne ganuwa na biyu daga cikin kwayar halitta, bayan ganuwar waje mai suna “Cell Wall.” Sai kalmar “Cytoplasm”, wanda a harshen Hausa na kira “Ruwan Rayuwa.”  Wannan ruwa yana cikin kwayar halitta ne, a cikin ganuwar “Tantanin Kwayar Halitta” da bayaninsa ya gabata, kuma yana daga cikin abubuwa masu matukar mahimmanci da ke dauke a cikin Kwayar Halitta baki daya.  Wasu malaman musulunci masu kokarin fahimtar tsarin halitta ta nassoshin Kur’ani ma suna ganin wannan ruwa ne Allah ke ishara zuwa gare shi, da ya ce ya halicci kowace dabba ne daga ruwa.

Bayan “Ruwan Rayuwa” (Cytoplasm), sai abu mai mahimmanci na gaba, wato “Asalin Sinadarin Halitta” wanda a harshen Turanci ake kira “Nucleus”.  “Nucleus” yana  cikin harabar tantanin kwayar halitta ne shi ma, kuma shi ne jigo a fannin binciken sanin tsarin gadon xabi’u da siffofin halitta a kimiyyance.  Domin shi ne yake dauke da dukkan abubuwan da bincikenmu ke dogaro a kansu wajen sanin tsarin gadon xabi’un halitta.  A cikin wannan “Asalin Sinadarin Halitta” (Nucleus) ne ake samun “Chromosome”, wato “Ma’adanar Bayanan Xabi’ar Halitta”.  Kowace kwayar halitta na dauke da tagwayen “Ma’adanar Bayanan Xabi’ar Halitta” guda 23 ne.  Wannan ke nuna cewa a cikin kowanne, za a samu guda 46 kenan (23 x 2 = 46).  Dukkan waxannan ma’adanar bayanan xabi’ar halitta iri daya ne, a jikin mutum daya, duk da yake kowane xan adam na shi sun sha bamban da na waninsa.  Kowane dayan tagwayen “Ma’adanar Bayanan Xabi’a” kuma yana dauke ne da zaren “Madarar Bayanan Xabi’ar Halitta” da ake kira “Deoxyribonucleic Acid” ko “DNA” a takaice.  Wannan zare a siffar sarka yake, mai harde da juna. Kuma a jikin layin wannan sakakken zare ne ake da “Kwayoyin Xabi’ar Halittar” kowane xan adam.  Waxannan kwayoyin xabi’un halitta su ake kira “Genes”.  Kowane xan adam yana kebantuwa ne da kwayoyin xabi’un halitta daban da suka sha bamban da na wani, waxanda ya gado su daga wajen iyayensa ko kakanninsa ko kakannin kakanninsa, har dai abin ya kai ga Annabi Adamu da Hauwa’u, amincin Allah ya kara tabbata a gare su.

Sai kalmar “Allele”, wato “Xabi’ar Halitta ta Musamman.”  Misali, daga cikin xabi’u da siffofin halitta akwai tsayi, da gajarta, da saurin fushi, da fara’a, da sanyin zuciya, da zafin rai da sai sauransu.  Waxannan dukkansu “Xabi’un halitta ne na musamman,” wato “Allele.  Sai kalmar “Trait”, wato “Kebantacciyar Xabi’ar Halitta” wajen rinjaye ko rauni ake nufi.  Idan mutum yana da wata xabi’a ta halitta mai rinjaye, wacce ke bayyana a jikin ‘ya’yansa, wannan ita ake kira “Dominant Trait”, wato “Xabi’a Mai Rinjaye.”  Idan kuma xabi’ar halittarsa ba ta iya bayyana a fili, saboda rinjayar da xabi’ar halittar matarsa ko na mahaifinsa suka yi a kan nashi, sai a kira wannan da suna “Recessive Trait”, wato “Xabi’a Nakasasshiya” kenan.

A mako mai zuwa za mu ci gaba.  A ci gaba da kasancewa tare damu.

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