Tsarin Babbar Manhajar Android (1)

A yau za mu fara bincike na musamman kan babbar manhajar wayar salula mai suna “Android”. Wannan kasidar za ta dan yi tsayi, don haka za mu bi ta daki-daki. Wannan makon za mu fara ne da gabatarwa. A sha karatu lafiya.

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Gabatarwa

Shekaru biyar da suka gabata a Najeriya da sauran kasashe masu tasowa, an samu bayyanar wata sabuwar babbar manhajar wayar salula da tsarinta da kintsinta suka sha bamban da wadanda aka saba gani da mu’amala dasu, irin babbar manhajar Symbian (S60 da S40) da Java da kuma Asha da ta bayyana daga baya.  Wannan bakuwar babbar manhaja da ta bayyana ta hanyar wayoyin kamfanin Tecno da Samsung da Sony da Motorola kuwa, ita ce: Babbar Manhajar Android ko Android Operating System a harshen kimiyyar sadarwar zamani.  Sadda wannan sabuwar babbar manhajar wayar salula ta fara bayyana ko zuwa a wasu wayoyi na zamani (Smartphones), da yawa cikin mutane sun yi farin ciki sosai.  Domin saukinta da kyaun siffarta sun kayatar dasu matuka, sannan ta basu damar isa gidajen yanar sadarwa cikin sauki sanadiyyar ingantaccen tsarin sadarwa na Intanet da take dauke dasu.  Da wayoyi masu dauke da wannan babbar manhaja ta Android suka ci gaba da shigowa, sai jama’a suka fara tambayar bambancin dake tsakaninta da sauran manhajojin wayoyin salula dake dauke cikin wayoyin Nokia (kamar Symbian, da Asha da Windows Phone).

Shafin Kimiyya da Kere-kere ya sha samun tambayoyi kan haka da yawa a baya.  Kasancewar a bangaren tambayoyi ne kadai nake amsa su, wanda hakan ke nufin bayanan a takaice suke zuwa, yasa na ga dacewar rubuta kasida ta musamman don samun gamsarwa ga masu bukata.

Kalmar Android ta shahara a bakunanmu, musamman a Arewacin kasar nan.  Wasu matasa ma har bagu suke; idan wayarka ba Android bace, ka zama bakauyen birni.  To amma, wannan kalma ta Android me take nufi?  Wa ya samar da wannan babbar manhaja mai matukar tasiri a duniyar yau?  Shin, wai ma ita babbar manhajar Android nau’i daya ce? In a a, meye bambancin dake tsakaninsu?  Sannan, a na’urar wayar salula kadai ake samun babbar manhajar Android?  In a a, wasu na’urorin sadarwa ko na’urorin amfanin gida suke amfani da babbar manhajar Android?  Ba wannan kadai ba, wa ke gina manhajoji ko masarrafan (Applications) dake cikin Android ta hanyar Play Store?  Yaya ake gina su?  Shin, idan mai karatu yana son gina ire-iren wadannan manhajoji, shi ma zai iya? In eh, wasu hanyoyi zai bi wajen gina manhajoji ko masarrafan (Applications) da za a iya amfani dasu a wannan babbar manhaja?  Wasu kayayyakin aiki yake bukata wajen yin haka?  Kuma yana bukatar dole sai ya je makaranta an koya masa, ko dai zai iya alkafira kawai ya kama ginawa ta hanyar karatu da kwatantawa?  Idan kuma ya gama gina manhajarsa, ta wace hanya zai dora ta a kan wannan Cibiya ta Play Store?  Shin, a cibiyar Google Play ko Play Store, akwai manhajoji da aka gina cikin harshen Hausa?

Wadannan, da ma kari  akansu, su ne abin da wannan kasida za ta duba, ta hanyar bincike mai zurfi, a aikace, don baiwa mai karatu samun gamsuwa.  A halin yanzu za mu fara da bayanin “Asali da Tarihin Babbar Manhajar Android” a duniya.

Asali da Tarihin Android

Idan aka ce: “Android” ana nufin wata babbar manhajar wayar salula ce da wata kungiya mai suna: Open Handset Alliance (www.openhandsetalliance.com) ta gina kuma take lura da ita, tare da bayar da lasisin amfani da ita ga masu kera wayoyin salula, da ka’idojin da za su bi wajen kayatar da manhajar, don sayarwa ga jama’a.  Asalin madarar wannan babbar manhaja (Operating System Kernel) ana tafiyar dashi ne a tsarin “Bude ga kowa” (Open Source).  Abin da wannan ke nufi shi ne, idan kai masani ne a fannin dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta da wayar salula ko na’urorin sadarwa, kamfani kake ko gama-garin masani ne kai mai zaman kansa, za ka iya saukar da asalin madarar wannan babbar manhaja ta Android (Android Source Code) kyauta daga shafin kungiyar Open Handset Alliance (OHA), ka inganta, ka tsara, sannan ka kayatar da ita daidai da ka’idojin dake dauke cikin kundin Google mai take: Compatibility Test Suite (CTS).

An kafa wannan kamfani na OHA ne a ranar 5 ga watan Nuwamba, shekarar 2007.  Jagorar wannan gamayya shi ne kamfanin Google Inc., wanda shi ne ya sayi asalin babbar manhajar Android daga kamfanin Android Inc.  Daga nan ya kafa wannan kungiya don hada karfi da karfe tare da bunkasa wannan babbar manhaja a tsarin “Bude ga kowa.”  Wannan kungiya ta OHA na dauke da mambobi 80 ne a halin yanzu, shahararru daga cikinsu su ne: Google, da Samsung, da HTC, da Motorola, da LG, da Sony, da Texas Technologies, da Dell, da Intel, da Nvidia, da Qualcomm da sauransu.  Wadannan kamfanoni ne da suka yi dumu-dumu a fannin kera wayoyin salula, ko masarrafar wayar salula, ko kwamfutoci da sauran makamantansu.  Babbar manufarsu dai, kamar yadda yake rubuce a shafinta, shi ne samar da wayoyin salula ko na’urorin sadarwa masu kayatarwa, masu karancin cin makamashin batir, kuma masu sauki ga jama’a.

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Kafa wannan Kungiya ya zo daidai da lokacin da kamfanin Nokia, shahararren kamfanin kera wayoyin salula na duniya a lokacin, wanda ya kwashe shekaru sama da goma yana rike da kambin shugabanci a fannin kerawa da tallatawa da sayar da wayoyin salula masu inganci, ya kwace kasuwa, yayi kane-kane; ba wanda ke iya motsawa, idan ka kebance kamfanoni irin su Samsung, da Sony(Ericsson) da Motorola, a lokacin da yake yayi.  Babbar kalubale da sauran kamfanoni suka fuskanta kafin bayyanar babbar manhajar Android a wayoyin salula shi ne: saye kamfanin Symbian Inc (wanda a baya shi ne ke baiwa sauran kamfanoni lasisin ginawa da kayatar da babbar manhajar Symbian a wayoyinsu) da kamfanin Nokia yayi, don yin babakere a kasuwar baki daya.  Wannan yazo daidai da lokacin da kamfanin Google ya sayi wannan babbar manhaja ta Android a shekarar 2005, da kuma kafa kungiyar Open Handset Alliance da aka yi daga bisani.

Daga nan kamfanin Nokia ya fara samun kishiya mai tasiri, wanda a karshe hakan ya tilasta masa komawa don yin kawancen kasuwanci da kamfanin Microsoft da ke gina babbar manhajar wayar salula mai suna Windows Phone.  To amma kafin ya fadaka, tuni wadancan sauran kamfanoni kawancensu da Google tayi nisa, tayi karfi har ta fara haifar da tasiri mai inganci da a karshe hakan ya basu damar kwace kasuwar gaba daya daga kamfanin Nokia.  A halin yanzu kamfanin dake tashe a duniya wajen yawan adadin wayoyin salula, da kayatattun manhajojin waya, shi ne kamfanin Samsung.  A halin yanzu duk inda ka san ana jera sunayen kamfanonin wayar salula a duniya, za ka samu kamfanin Samsung ne a gaba.  Meye dalili?

Bunkasar Manhajar Android

Wannan babbar manhajar wayar salula ta Android na dauke da siffofi masu kayatarwa ainun.  Galibin siffofinta suna magance bukatun dake kunshe cikin dabi’ar dan adam ne wajen son sauki, da son kwalliya, da son rahusa wajen farashi, da son sauri ko gaggawar aiwatar da abubuwa, da kuma bayar da kariya don rage hadari da hasarar duniya ko lokaci.  Ba wannan kadai ba, hatta asalin madarar babbar manhajar ma, idan muka koma bangaren kwararru masu gina manhajar waya da kwamfuta, kyauta ake basu ita; su yi nazari, su gina, su habaka, su inganta, sannan su kayatar iya gwargwadon ka’idojin da kamfanin Google ya assasa.  Kai, saboda saukin ya kai matuka ma, akwai kamfanonin da suke canza duk abin da suke bukata, su ki bin ka’idar kamfanin Google wajen caccanza abin da suke so, kuma sun sha Kenan.  Illa dai ba su da damar sanya kowace manhaja ta kamfanin Google ne kawai.

Bayan wadannan siffofi, masu gina babbar manhajar wayar salula (Developers) suna gina manhajoji ko masarrafai na kyauta da na kudi (ga mai bukata).  Bayan sun gina, suna iya dora su a Cibiyar Masarrafai (Play Store ko Google Play) dake dauke a saman wannan babbar manhaja da wayoyi ke zuwa da ita.  Ga masu mu’amala da waya mai dauke da Android, suna iya saukarwa (Downloading) da kuma loda (Installing) wa wayoyinsu wadannan masarrafai kyauta ko su saya idan suna bukatar karin fa’ida ga masu dauke da karin fa’idar.  Sannan Android na dauke da tsarin kira, da amsa kira, da daukan hotuna, da bidiyo, da kyatar dasu, da daukan sauti, da taskance lambobi da sauran abubuwa masu kayatarwa, fiye da bukatar mai wayar ma, musamman mu dake kasashe masu tasowa.

Kari a kan haka, waya mai dauke da babbar manhajar Android na dauke da manhajojin kamfanin Google masu dimbin yawa, tunda shi ne mai asalin manhajar.  Wadannan masarrafai sun hada da: Google Search, da Google+, da Gmail, da Google Maps, da Google Play ko Play Store, da Google Chrome, da Play Newsstand, da Games, da Hangout, da Youtube, da Play Music, da Voice Search, da Google Drive.  Wadannan kadan ne daga cikin manhajojin kamfanin Google dake dauke a kan babbar manhajar Android.

Samuwar wadannan siffofi ya bunkasa kasuwa da kwarjinin Android a duniya baki daya; daga gabas zuwa yamma, daga kudu zuwa arewa, har da tsakiya baki daya.  An wayi gari, bayan wayar salula mai dauke da Android, akwai Android a na’urorin sarrafa bayanai (irin su Tablets) da Android a talabijin na zamani (Android TV), da Android a motocin hawa (Android Auto), da kuma Android a cikin agogon hannu (Android Wear).  Wadannan su ne nau’ukan manhajar Android da ake dasu a duniya a halin yanzu.  Abin da kuma hakan ke nuna shi ne, ba wayar salula bace kadai ke iya zuwa da babbar manhajar Android, a a.  Talabijin ma na zuwa da ita.  Agogon hannu ma na zuwa da Android.  Sannan a halin yanzu akwai motocin hawa na zamani da ake kera su dauke da babbar manhajar Android dake taimakawa wajen nuna  musu hanya da taswira da gano matsalolin da mai tuki zai iya cin karo dasu na mummunar yanayi da sauransu.  Wannan ke nuna yadda wannan babbar manhaja ke habbaka da bunkasa.

Idan muka koma bangaren kasuwanci kuma, ya zuwa shekarar 2013, alkaluman bayanai sun tabbatar da cewa: babbar manhajar da wayoyin salula suka fi amfani da ita a duniya yanzu ita ce Android.  Sannan an fi sayen wayoyin salula masu dauke da babbar manhajar Android fiye da nau’in Windows da iOS da kuma Mac OS X.  Har wa yau, an tabbatar, ta hanyar binciken ilimi da kididdiga, cewa adadin wayoyin salular da aka sayar a duniya tsakanin shekarar 2012, da 2013 da kuma shekarar 2014 da muke ciki, sun kai adadin kwamfutocin da ake amfani dasu, masu rai, a duniyar yau!  A watan Yuli na shekarar 2013, an kiyasta cewa Cibiyar Masarrafai na Android, wato Play Store ko Google Play na dauke ne da masarrafai wajen miliyan daya!  Zuwa karshen shekarar 2013 din dai har wa yau, adadin masarrafan da aka saukar dasu kan waya daga Cibiyar Play Store sun kai biliyan 50!

A nasa bangaren kuma, wani maginin manhajar wayar salula mai zaman kansa, ya tabbatar da cewa kashi 75 cikin 100 na masu gina manhajar wayar salula a duniya suna gina wa babbar Manhajar Android ne.  A taron shekara-shekara da yake yi don fadakar da masu gina manhajar kwamfuta mai take: Google I/O na shekarar 2014, kamfanin Google ya sanar da cewa a duk wata ba a rasa a kalla wayoyin salula masu dauke da manhajar Android guda biliyan daya a duniya!  Dankari!  Lallai abin na yi ne!

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1 Comment
  1. USMAN H GANGKUBA says

    ALLAH YA KARA BASIRA. AMMA MAI YASA BABU SEARCH ENGINE A WANNAN SITE DOMIN AKOI ABUBUWA SOSAI SAMUN WASSU BAYANAI YANADA WAHALA. NA GODE

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