Mazan Jiya: Ibn Al-Haitham, Abu Aliy (5)

Bakonmu na yau shi ne Ibn Al-Haitham. Daya daga cikin manyan malamai magabata da suka yi fice a fannin kimiyyar sararin samaniya da sinadarai.

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Nasabarsa da Karatunsa

Shi ne Abu ‘Ali, Al-Hasan ibn Al-Hasan, ibn Al-Haytham, Al-Basari.  An haife shi ne a garin Basra na kasar Iraki, a shekara ta 354 bayan Hijira, wanda yayi daidai da shekarar 965 milidiyya kenan.  An fi saninsa da lakabin Ibn Al-Haytham a tsakanin Malaman Musulunci da marubuta tarihinsu, ko kuma Alhazen, kamar yadda Turawa suka saba kiransa. Marubuta tarihinsa sun sha bamban wajen tabbatar da kabilarsa; Balarabe ne ko dan kabilar Farisa? Wannan ya faru ne saboda yadda aka samu gamewa tsakanin Larabawa da Farisawa a kasar Iraki na lokacin da aka haife shi, sanadiyyar tasirin Musulunci da kasancewar biranen Bagadaza da Basra daular mulkin Kalifofin Banul Abbas a wancan lokaci.

Ya fara karatu a birnin Basra, daga nan ya karasa birnin Bagadaza don ci gaba da karatun addini, kamar yadda yake al’adar mutane a wancan lokaci.  Bayan yayi nisa da karatu sai ya kai ziyara garin Buyid na kasar Iran a yau, inda yayi aikin gwamnati na dan takaitaccen lokaci.  A can ne har ya wa yau ya shagaltar da kansa da karatun fannin tauhidi, da kuma wasu fannonin ilmin kimiyya.  Wannan shi ne matakin farko da Ibn Al-Haytham ya taka wajen kwarewa a fannin ilmin kimiyya.

Bayan wasu ‘yan shekaru sai yayi bulaguro zuwa birnin Al-Kahira na kasar Masar, inda Gwamnan Fatimiyyah na wancan lokaci mai suna Al-Haakim bi Amrillah ya dauke shi aiki na musamman don killace kogin Nil da ke birnin.  Ya bukace shi ne, a matsayinsa na masanin kimiyyar gine-gine, da ya samo hanyar da za a bi wajen datse ruwan da ke kwarara daga Kogin Nil, don samar da madatsin ruwa na musamman a Aswan, inda a halin yanzu ake da madatsin ruwa.  Da ya buga ya ga ba zai iya ba, kuma saboda tsoron kaidin wannan Gwamna, sai ya shiririce karfi da yaji, kamar ya zama mahaukaci. Nan take aka killace shi a wani daki, da sunan ana masa magani.  Amma cikin dabara yana ta rubuce-rubucensa babu wanda ya sani.  Domin a lokacin da ya nuna bazai iya wancan aiki ba karara, nan take Gwamnan na iya sa a kashe shi.  A haka yaci gaba da zama a wannan kurkuku, daga shekarar 1011 har zuwa lokacin da Allah ya karbi rayuwar wannan Gwamna a shekarar 1021 miladiyya.  Daga nan aka sake shi.  A wannan zama da yayi a kurkuku ne ya samu dama da lokacin rubuta shahararren littafinsa mai suna Kitaabul Manaazir, ko The Book of Optics, kamar yadda yake fassare yanzu cikin harshen Turanci.

Bayan tsira daga wannan Gwamna sai ya nausa kasar Sham (Syria), daga can ya sake nausawa Daular Andalus, watau Islamic Spain kenan a wancan lokaci.  Cikin  wannan bulaguro nashi yayi karatu wajen malamai da dama, sannan ya samu daman rubuce-rubuce kan fannonin ilmin addini da kimiyya bila adadin.  Cikin wannan lokaci ne yayi rubutu kan fannoni irin su Fiziya, da Sararin Samaniya, da Lissafi, da fannin bincike kan tsarin haske (Optics), da fannin likitanci, da kuma sababbin hanyoyin gudanar da binciken kimiyya, watau Modern Experimental Scientific Methods.  Marubuta tarihin Ibn Al-Haytham sun tabbatar da cewa wannan shi ne lokacin da ya kasance cikin ganiyar kwarewarsa, musamman a fannin ilmin kimiyya da lissafi.

Daga nan ya sake dawowa birnin Al-Kahira na kasar Masar cikin shekarar 1038 miladiyya, inda ya shagaltar da kansa wajen fadada bincikensa kan ilmin kimiyya, yana mai kusantar da kansa da babbar jami’ar musulunci ta farko, wato Al-Azhar, da kuma babbar cibiyar binciken ilmi na Daular Musulunci da ke Al-Kahira mai suna Daarul ‘Ilm.  Wannan cibiyar bincike na musamman ta shahara sosai, kusan fiye da wadda ke birnin Bagadaza a wancan lokaci.

Daga cikin manyan dalibansa akwai Abul Wafaa, Mubaashir ibn Al-Faatek, wato shahararren masanin fannin lissafin nan na kasar Masar.  Ya zauna da shi tsawon lokaci, inda ya koyi nau’uakn ilmin kimiyya da dama, har ya shahara a fannin lissafi.  Wannan ke nuna yadda Ibn Al-Haytham ya lazimci birnin Al-Kahirah da kasar Masar, a lokacin bulaguronsa.

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Gudummawa ga Al’umma

Tabbas, wajibi ne a sanya sunan Abu ‘Ali Ibn Al-Haythan a duk sadda aka zo kididdige sunayen gwarazan da suka yi tasiri mai girman gaske wajen ci gaban al’umma baki daya, musamman a karnin da yayi zamani.  Wadanda suka rubuta tarihinsa sun tabbatar da cewa ya rubuta littattafai wajen 200, amma saboda tasirin zamani da lokaci, wadanda suka riske mu basu wuce guda 55 ba.  Littattafan duk a harshen larabci suke, daga baya ne aka fara fassara su zuwa harshen Latin, da wasu kadan da aka fassara zuwa harshen Turanci.  Wani abin sha’awa shi ne, duk masana fannin kimiyyar wannan zamani da sauran zamunnan da suka gabata sun yi ikirarin tasirin rayuwar Ibn Al-Haytham kan fannin ilmin kimiyya a duniya baki daya, musamman wajen gina ka’idojin ilmi ingantattu masu taimakawa wajen tabbatar da kowane irin ilmi ne.

A fannin ilmin haske ya assasa ka’idoji masu yawan gaske.  Wannan na dunkule ne cikin shahararren littafin nan  nasa mai suna Kitaabul Manaazir, wanda aka fassara shi zuwa harshen Turanci, wato The Book of Optics.  Wannan littafi yayi tasiri sosai, musamman wajen zama turba ga wadanda suka biyo baya a wannan fanni mai muhimmanci. Idan masu karatu basu mance ba, mun tsawaita bayani kan wannan littafi a shahararriyar kasidarmu mai take: Samuwar Haske da Yanayinsa a Kimiyyance.  Bayan haka, ya samar da ka’idar ilmi kan fannin ilmin haske ta la’akari da tasirin madubin gani (Mirror). Wannan fannin ilmi shi ake kira Catoptrics.  Sannan rubuce-rubucensa sun yi tasiri mai girman gaske kan masana fannin kimiyya irin su Averroes, da shahararren masanin musuluncin nan mai suna Kamaalud Deen Al-Faarisi, da kuma Taqee’ud Deen, daya daga cikin masana a daular Usmaniyya na kasar Turkiyyya.  Sannan Ibn Al-Haytham ne ya assasa mahangar kimiyya tabbatacciya, wacce har yanzu ake dogaro a kanta, dangane da abin da ya shafi asali da samuwar Bakan Gizo, watau Rainbow kenan.

A daya bangaren kuma, ya samar da ka’idojin binciken kimiyya wadanda har yanzu ake ji da su, watau Scientific Methodologies.  Ya kuma fadada bincike a fannin ilmin falsafa, inda ya gano kura-kurai masu dimbin yawa da ke cikin ra’ayoyin masana fannin falsafa, irin su Aristatalis, da Aflato da sauransu.  A bangaren fannin lissafi shi ne ya samar da Ka’idar Lambobi a cikin lissafi, watau The Number Theory, ya kuma fadada fannin lissafi da ake kira Geometry, ko Jometiri.  Ya samar da ka’idojin kimiyya a bangaren Injiniyanci, da bangaren ilmin kasa, watau Geography.  Bayan haka, masana fannin kimiyyar sararin samaniya na wannan zamani sun baiwa wani bangare na jikin Wata sunansa, watau Alhazen, don nuna gamsuwa da irin kwazonsa da kuma taimakon da ya baiwa fannin ilmin Sararin Samaniya, watau Astronomy.

Ibn Al-Haytham mutum ne mai son ilmi da karatu da kuma karantarwa. Mutum ne mai tsananin son ibada da neman kusanci ga Allah mahaliccinsa.  Ga abin da yake cewa cikin daya daga cikin rubutunsa:

“A kullum bukata ta ita ce neman ilmi da kuma kokarin fahimtar inda gaskiya take.  Kuma ni abin da na yarda da shi shi ne, babu wata hanya mafi kusanci ga Ubangiji da samun karuwar hasken imani a zuciyar bawa, irin neman ilmi da kokarin fahimtar gaskiya.”

Wafati

Allah ya karbi rayuwarsa cikin watan Maris na shekarar 1040 miladiyya, watau cikin shekarar 430 kenan bayan Hijira, a birnin Al-Kahairah.  Ya yi rayuwa na tsawon shekaru 76 a duniya.  A yanzu shekarunsa 1,003 kenan da rasuwa.  Allah ya rahamshe shi, ya kuma sanya Aljanna ce makomarsa, amin.

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