Tasirin Ci Gaban Kimiyya da Fasaha Ga Rayuwa da Zamantakewar Dan Adam a Duniya (6)

An buga wannan makala ne a Jaridar AMINIYA ta ranar Jumma’a, 7 ga watan Fabrairu, 2020.

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Tsarin “CRISPR”

A shekarar 2012, sai wasu malaman kimiyyar halitta suka binciko wata hanya mafi sauqi da araha, idan aka kwatanta da ta baya, wajen sauya waxannan bayanai don samar wa jinsin xan adam rayuwa mai sauqi ta hanyar rabuwa da cututtukan da aka kasa gane kansu balle magance su.  Wannan sabuwar hanya ita ce: CRISPR (ko kace: “Kirispa” a lafazance), wanda jerin haruffa ne dake wakiltar wasu kalmomi masu siffata wani wata hanyar gudanar da wani aiki.  Abin da waxannan haruffa ke wakilta kuwa shi ne: “Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats.”

Masanan da suka gano wannan sabuwar hanyar sauya bayanan qwayar halittar jikin xan adam kuwa sun lura ne da cewa, a cikin jikin xan adam akwai wasu qananan halittu waxanda ke baiwa xan adam kariya daga cututtuka.  Waxannan su ake kira: “Antibodies”, kamar yadda muka sani a harshen turanci.  Iya aikinsu shi ne, yawo a cikin jinni don yin fada da duk wani bakon abu da zai iya kawo wa jikin xan adam cikas.  To amma sun lura cewa da zarar cututtuka sunyi yawa a cikin jinin xan adam, nan take sai ya kamu da rashin lafiya, domin waxannan qananan qwayoyin halitta suna gazawa.  Da suka koma cikin wancan rumbun adana bayanan dabi’a da siffofin xan adam, sai suka gano cewa ana iya amfani da wata hanya mafi sauqi wajen zakulo harafin dake wakiltar bayanin dake baiwa cuta damar kama jikin xan adam har ta kasa jin magani, kuma a iya cire shi.  Ba wannan bane kadai, da zarar an yanke ko cire wannan bayani mai dauke da cuta, wani bayani lafiyayye zai maye gurbinsa nan take, sanadiyyar wani tsari da Allah ya samar a jikin xan adam.  Wannan zai bayar da damar cire duk wani sinadarin halitta dake cikin jikin xan adam wanda ke baiwa wata cuta damar lakewa a jikinsa har ta kasa jin magani. Domin ko an cire wannan sinadari ma, ta amfani da wannan tsari na CRISPR, wani sinadari makamancinsa lafiyayye zai sake tsirowa don maye gurbinsa.  Allah buwayi gagara misali.

Tasirin “CRISPR” a Aikace

Kafin gano wannan tsari na CRISPR dake sauwaqe yadda ake iya sauya bayanan xabi’un halittar xan adam, wanda aka gano ta hanyar yin gwaji ga qananan halittu irin beraye da sauransu, daman masana sun dade suna tantance nau’ukan cututtukan da suka addabi jinsin xan adam, waxanda ko dai aka kasa gano hanyoyin magance su gaba xaya, irin su AIDS a farkon lamari, ko kuma tun magangunan na iya magance su har cututtukan suka gagari nau’ukan maganin da ake iya magance su dasu.

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Daga cikin ire-iren waxannan cututtuka akwai cutar AIDS ko HIV, da cutar sankara (Cancer), da cutar farfadiya, da kuma wata cuta dake kasa sandarar da jinin xan adam idan ya samu rauni.  Wannan cuta ita ake kira “Haemophilia”.  Masu irin wannan cuta da zarar sun samu rauni, to, jini ya dinga kwarara kenan babu kakkautawa.  A ka’ida duk sadda jini ya fara zuba daga jikin mutum, nan take zai kame.  Wannan shi ake kira “Blood Clotting” a harshen turanci.  Amma masu wannan cuta ta “Haemophilia” ba su da wannan tsari a garkuwan jikinsu.  Waxannan na cikin manyan cututtukan da ake ta qoqarin an magance su gaba xaya ma daga jinsin xan adam.

A yanzu qoqarin da ake tayi shi ne yin amfani da wannan hanya ta CRISPR don zare sinadaran dake dauke da wadancan cututtuka ga dukkan wanda aka same shi dasu. Misali, mai cutar sikila, ana iya duba sinadaran da mara lafiyan ke dauke dasu masu kunshe da cutar, sai a cire su, a dasa wasu lafiyayyu a madadinsu. Haka mai wancan cuta na “Haemophilia” ma; ana iya gano asalin cutar da cikin bayanan dabi’ar halittar mara lafiya, a cire ta gaba xaya.  Cututtuka irin su sankara da HIV kuwa tuni ana ta aiki a kansu.  Manufar, a asali, don samar da waraka ne. Wannan ta vangaren cututtuka kenan da neman waraka.

A xaya vangaren kuma tsarin CRISPR ya samar da wata hanya mafi sauqi wajen samar da wasu nau’ukan jarirai na musamman masu da dauke da xabi’u na musamman.  Waxannan nau’uakn jarirari su ake kira: “Designer Babies”; wato yadda za kaje kamfanin qera motoci ka gaya musu irin motar da kake buqata a maka, da irin siffofin da kake buqata, da wannan sabon tsari na CRISPR ana ganin nan gaba ma haka abin zai kasance wajen haihuwa.

Kafin samuwar CRISPR, tuni an samar da na’urorin kimiyya na musamman da ake amfani dasu wajen haifar da jarirai ga waxanda ba su dasu, ko ga matan da ba su iya haihuwa sanadiyyar dalilan rashin lafiya misali.  Amma a halin yanzu an wuce wurin.  Ana Magana ne a kan yadda za ayi a iya sarrafa sinadaran halittar jariri tun yana mahaifar uwarsa, tun daga tsarin tunaninsa a kwakwalwa, da halayyarsa, da xabi’unsa, zuwa irin wanda mahaifansa ke so.  Ya zama da zarar an haifeshi, zai zo ne da waxannan siffofi kai tsaye.

A mako mai zuwa in Allah yaso, zamu ga wasu daga cikin tasirin da wannan sabon tsarin bincike da jirkita asalin bayanan xabi’un halitta, ga rayuwar bil-adama a yanzu.

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