Fasahar AI: Asali da Ma’anar Fasahar “Artificial Intelligence”

An buga wannan makala ne a Jaridar AMINIYA ta ranar Jumma’a, 7 ga watan Agusta, 2020.

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Mabudin Kunnuwa

Tsawon shekarun da kwamfuta da sauran na’urorin sadarwa na zamani suka kwashe a duniya ana amfani dasu, an samu sauye-sauye masu yawa wajen tsari da kintsinsu; kama daga siffarsu, zuwa abin da suka kunsa da kuma abin da suke iya gudanarwa a aikace. Babban misali na cikin yadda tsarin kere-kere musamman na motoci da jirgin sama da yadda ake samar da kayayyaki a masana’antu. A lokutan baya manyan masana’antu na amfani da na’urori ne da ake sarrafa su da karfin inji, masu giya, ko totur, wadanda kuma ake zuba musu mai da man giris, don taimaka musu jujjuyawa da kai-komo a yayin da ake sarrafa su don samar da abin da ake bukata.

To amma da fannin fasahar sadarwa musamman ta bangaren kwamfuta ya fara bunkasa, sai ya mamaye dukkan fannonin rayuwa; daga sadarwa, kere-kere, koyarwa a makarantu, tiyata a asibitoci, wayar tangaraho, yada labarai da dai sauransu. A halin yanzu, tasirin kwamfuta da na’urorin sadarwa na zamani sun mamaye kowane bangaren rayuwa. Babu wani ofishi ko hukumar gwamnati ko masana’anta ko makaranta ko asibiti, da babu kwamfuta ko wata na’ura ta sadarwa na zamani. Wannan tasiri na fannin sadarwa da kwamfuta dai a yanzu ya bunkasa fiye da tunanin mai karatu, musamman mu dake kasashe masu tasowa.

Daga cikin fannoni masu ban mamaki akwai fannin dake rajin shigar wa kowace irin na’ura irin dabi’un dan adam, don ba ta daman aiwatar da mafi muhamman ayyukan da dan adam ne kadai ke iya aiwatar dasu, saboda kebantattun dabi’unsa, irin su: hankali ko hankaltar abubuwa, da tunani, da iya yanke hukunci tsakanin abubuwa, da iya kirdadon mai zai faru nan gaba – wato hasashe kenan – da tunatar da abokin mu’amala da dai sauransu. Dukkan wadannan dabi’u na dan adam, a halin yanzu da muke rayuwa, su ake kokarin cusa wa kowace irin na’ura da ake aiwatar da sadarwa da ita, ko wani inji na kere-kere, ko wani mutum-mutumi (Robot) da ke wata masana’anta.

Wannan fanni na ilimi shi ake kira: “Artificial Intelligence”, ko “AI” a gajarce. Kuma akanshi ne za mu yi nazari na musamman don duba tasirinsa kan sadarwa da kere-kere a duniya, musamman kan ma’aikata dake masana’antun duniya; shin, idan aka shigar wa galibin na’urorin da ake amfani dasu a masana’antu da kamfanoni irin dabi’u da halayya ta dan adam, har ya zama suna iya gudanar da ayyuka yadda ake so ko ma fiye da yadda mutane ke iya yi, musamman wajen kere-kere, yaya makomar ma’aikatan dake masana’antunmu nan gaba? Wannan shi ne nazarin da mahalarta taron koli na Kungiyar Masana’antu da Kere-Kere na duniya mai suna: “Global Manufacturing and Industrialization Summit” (GMIS2020) yayi a taronsa na ranar 28 ga watan Yuli da ya gataba, a birnin Hannover dake kasar Jamus. Bayani kan sakamakon taron zai zo nan gaba kadan.

Amma kafin nan, zai dace mu fahimci shin, mene ne wannan fanni ko fasaha na “AI”? Zuwa kashi nawa ya kasu? Shin, akwai misalai da mai karatu zai iya gani na wannan tsari na “AI” a rayuwarmu ta yau? Shin, me ake nufi da “AI Robots” – wato na’ura mai fasaha? Kuma meye tasirin ire-iren wadannan na’urori masu fasaha a masana’antu? Wannan Makala dai nazari ne na musamman da muka ga dacewar kawoshi a yanzu. Da zarar mun gama za mu koma bincikenmu da muka faro kan Fasahar “5G”.

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Wata Sabuwar Duniya

A cewar Malam Magaji Galadima – Galadiman Maitsidau na Kano – “Duniya kafar mota ce; kullum juyawa take yi.” Wannan Magana haka take. Ya kara da cewa: “Duk sadda kaga wani abin da ya birgeka na ci gaba, sai ka dauka an zo karshe kenan. Amma da zarar wani ya yi nutso cikin kogin ilimi, sai kaga ya fito da wani abu sabo.” Sadda aka samu kwamfutoci a duniya, da yawa cikin mutane sun dauka duniyar ci gaba ta zo karshe. Domin a tunaninsu, babu wani abu da dan adam ya taba kerawa a fannin sadarwa da sarrafa bayanai, irin kwamfuta. Har ta kai daya daga cikin manyan masana ilimin kwamfuta dake karantarwa a wata babbar jami’a daga cikin manyan jami’o’in kasar Amurka mai suna: David Eck, ya rubuta littafi na musamman mai suna: “The Most Complex Machine – A Survey of Computer and Computing.” Wanda ke nuna lallai na’urar kwamfuta fa, ita ce karshe; babu wata na’ura da aka taba kerawa mai sarkakiya irinta.

To amma daga baya sai ga fasahar Intanet. Bayyanar Intanet kuma ya sa duk inda kaga kwamfuta, muddin ba a iya amfani da Intanet a kanta, to, holoko ce. Ana haka kuma sai bincike ya ingiza wancan ci gaban zuwa gaba, inda a halin yanzu da kwamfutar, da kuma fasahar Intanet din, muddin babu wani dandano na “dabi’un” dan adam wajen gudanuwarsu, to, sun zama kamar hoto. Fannin da ya kawo wannan ci gaba kuma shi ake kira: “Artificial Intelligence”, ko “AI” a gajarce.

Ma’ana da Asalin Fasahar “Artificial Intelligence” (AI)

Wannan fanni na “AI”, fanni ne dake karantar da yadda za a iya tsofa wa kowace irin na’ura da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani dabi’u da halayya irin ta dan adam. Manufar fasahar “AI” ita ce, koya wa kwamfuta da manhajojin kwamfuta, da na’urorin sadarwa – irin wayar salula da nau’ukanta – na’urar kere-kere a masana’antu – wato: “Robots” – wasu daga cikin tsarin tunani da dabi’un dan adam, don basu damar aiwatar da ayyuka a kintse, a natse, a cike, a lokaci da yanayin da ake son su gabatar.

Fasahar “AI” fanni ne mai fadin gaske. Duk da cewa yanzu ne ake cin gajiyar fannin a aikace, amma ya samo asali ne tun shekarun 1950s, inda bincike ya fara gudana har zuwa shekarar 1977. Daga nan kuma komai ya tsaya. Domin ta la’akari da ka’idojin wannan fanni, ana bukatar tarin bayanai masu dimbin yawa don amfani dasu wajen koya wa kwamfuta ko ma kowace irin na’ura ce, tsari da kintsin tunanin da ake son tayi. Wanda a lokacin da wancan bincike ya faro, babu irin wannan bayanai da ake bukata; domin ko fasahar Intanet ma bata bunkasa ba. To amma yanzu a dukkan dakika, mutane da ma’aikatu da masana’antu na samar da bayanai masu dimbin yawa da ya wuce tunanin dan adam; la’alla ta hanyar Intanet ne, ko kuma wajen gudanar da ayyukansu ne. Wannan dimbin bayanai shi ake kira: “Big Data”, kuma dasu ake amfani wajen aiwatar da wannan tsari na fasahar “AI”.

A karkashin fannin “AI” akwai fannoni guda biyu mahimmai, wadanda su ne ginshikin fannin baki daya. Bangaren farko shi ake kira: “Machine Learning” ko “ML” a gajarce. Wannan fanni na dogaro ne da hanyoyin koya wa kwamfuta ko wata manhaja iya fahimtar abubuwa – rubutu ne, ko sauti, ko alamomi, ko siffofi na musamman – don sabawa da wadannan siffofi da iya gane su nan gaba. Galibi akan yi amfani da ka’idojin ilimin kididdiga, wato: “Statistical Models”, don tabbatar da dabi’un da ake son kwamfuta ko wata manhajar kwamfuta na musamman ta saba dasu. Karkashin wannan fanni, ana dabi’antar da kwamfuta ko manhajar kwamfuta ne da abubuwan da aka tsara mata na musamman. Fanni na biyu kuma shi ne fannin: “Deep Learning”, ko “DL” a gajarce. Shi kuma wannan fannin dashi ake amfani wajen dabi’antar da wata na’ura ta musamman, kamar na’urorin da ake amfani dasu a masana’antu don kere-kere na zamani, wajen tantance abubuwa, ko aiwatar da wasu ayyuka, ko tantance ingancin wani tsari da dai sauransu. Karkashin wannan tsari ko fanni, ana girka wa na’ura ne irin dabi’un da kwakwalwar dan adam ke dauke dasu, sai a bar na’urar tayi tunani sannan ta ba da sakamakon abin da ta fahimta daga abubuwan da aka gabatar mata. Wannan fanni na amfani ne da wani tsari mai suna: “Neural Network”.

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1 Comment
  1. Issa abdu says

    Assalamu alaikum ina maka fatan alkairi. Dan Allah taya zan sauko Kaduna ka a waya ta?

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