Mazan Jiya: Abu Raihaan Al-Biroonee (3)

Yau ga mu dauke da tarihin babban malami Abur Raihaan, Albirooni. Daya daga cikin mazan jiya, wadanda suka baiwa fannin kimiyya mahimmanci, tare da alakanta shi da addini.

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Shi ne Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Al-Biroonee, wanda aka fi sani da suna ko lakabin Abu Raihaan Al-Biroonee; daya daga cikin malaman musulunci masana ilmin kimiyya da fasaha da kimiyyar sararin samaniya.  Yana cikin magabata masu himma, masu hazaka, kuma masu hangen nesa.  Turawa kan kira shi da suna Alberonius da harshen Latin, ko su ce Al-Biruni cikin harshen Turanci.  An haifi Abu Raihaan ne a ranar 5 ga watan Satumba na shekarar 973 miladiyya, watau daidai shekara ta 312 kenan bayan hijira.  Wannan ke sa shi cikin sahun malaman musulunci magabata, wadanda kuma suka yi tasiri matuka a rayuwar duniya baki daya, ba wai daular musuluncin da suka tashi cikinta kadai ba.  An haife shi a garin Kath da ke Lardin Khawaarizm, ko Khiva da ke kasar Azarbeijan a wannan zamani.  A wancan lokaci wannan lardi na karkashin Afghanistan ne, ko kuma lardin da ake kira da suna Maa Waraa’an Nahr, kafin sunan Afghanistan ya mamaye shi.

Neman Ilmi

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Ya kwashi shekaru 25 dinsa na farko a lardin Khorasmiya inda ya shagaltar da kansa wajen koyon ilmin musulunci, irinsu nahawun larabci, da fikihu, da aqeeda ko tauhidi, da kuma fannin lissafi, da ilmin sararin samaniya, sai ilmin likitanci  da wasu fannonin ilmi daban.  A daidai wannan lokaci kai ziyara zuwa Lardin Bukhaara (lardin su Imamul Bukhaari), lokacin sarki Mansoor II.  A can ne ya hadu da Ibn Sina, daya daga cikin malamai musulunci wanda akidun malaman falsafan daular Girka suka yi tasiri a kan ilminsa.  Nan suka ta fafatawa cikin tattaunawa kan wasu ma’aloli na ilmi.  Cikin shekarar 998 miladiyya Abu Raihaan ya ziyarci daular Ziyaarid inda Sarkin Tabarastan ke zaune yake mulki.  A nan ya zauna na wasu ‘yan shekaru, inda ya rubuta daya daga cikin littattafansa da suka shahara mai suna: Al-aathaarul Baaqiyah Anil Quroonil Khaaliyah (الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية), wanda babban littafin tarihi ne da ke bayani kan duddugar al’ummonin da suka gabata, da irin tasirin da zamansu yayi a sadda suke raye.

A shekarar 1017 miladiyya Abu Raihaan ya sake kutsawa cikin duniya, daidai lokacin da babban Sarki kuma Khalifa watau Mahmood Al-Ghaznawi ya ci Lardin Ray da yaki.  A lokacin aka dibi malamai shahararru aka tafi da su can, ciki har da Abu Raihaan.  A can ne aka nada shi Babban Malamin Kotu, masani kan ilmin sararin samaniya, don baiwa kotu shawara kan duk abin da ya shafi jujjuyawan rana, da wata, da shekaru, da taurari da yanayinsu, da kisfewar rana ko wata da yadda suke samuwa, da dai sauransu.

Za mu ci gaba mako mai zuwa in Allah Yaso.

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