Fasahar 5G: Ma’ana da Asalin Fasahar 5G

An buga wannan makala ne a jaridar AMINIYA ta ranar Jumma’a, 19 ga watan Yuni, 2020.

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Marhala ta 5 (5th Generation – “5G”)

Bayan tsawon lokaci da aka dauka ana amfani da tsarin sadarwa na hudu, wato 4G – LTE, cikin shekarar 2019, wato shekarar da ta gabata kenan, sai wasu kasashe da kamfanoni suka fara gwajin tsari na marhala ta biyar, wato 5G kenan.  Kafin muyi nisa, watakila mai karatu na iya tambayar cewa: “Wai yaushe ne tsarin marhalar sadarwa na 4G ya iso Najeriya, da har za a ce an zarce zuwa marhala ta biyar?”  Dole ne mai karatu yayi irin wannan tambaya.  Saboda hatta tsarin sadarwa na 3G, ba kowane mai amfani da wayar salula bane ma ya sanshi, balle amfani dashi.  Gaibin wadanda ke amfani da tsarin 3G din kuma, basu kai ga mallakar wayar salula mai dauke da tsarin 4G ba.  Don haka, a wajen masu irin wadannan wayoyi, basu ma san ana yi ba, wai kunu a makota.

Amsar wannan tambaya dai a kusa take.  Na farko, wadannan tsare-tsare na sadarwa ba a Najeriya ake kirkirarsu ba, balle muce ai ba a dade da bullo da wannan tsarin ba ana son kawo wani.  A kasashen da suka ci gaba a fannin tattalin arzikin kasa da sadarwa, tuni an dade ana amfani dasu.  Na biyu, galibin wayoyin salular da ake shigo mana dasu muna saye, wayoyi ne masu saukin farashi, wadanda galibinsu ba sa dauke da tsarin sadarwan da ake yayi.  Misali, sadda ake ta yayin 3G, kashi 90 cikin 100 na wayoyin salular dake Najeriya a lokacin duk masu tsarin 2G ne. In kaga mutum da waya mai dauke da tsarin 3G, to, hamshakin mai kudi ne ko ma’aikacin gwamnati.  Yayin da wayoyi masu 3G suka shigo kuma, tuni an tsallaka amfani da tsarin 4G a sauran kasashen da suka ci gaba.  Har yanzu, in da za a yi kididdiga a Najeriya, za a samu galibin wayoyin salular dake hannun mutane ba sa dauke da tsarin 4G.

Dalili na uku shi ne, su wadannan sababbin tsare-tsare na sadarwa, ba wai da zarar an kera wayar salula mai dauke dasu shikenan sai kawai a saya a ta amfani dasu a kowace kasa bane.  Dole sai kowace kasa ta tabbatar da tsarin sadarwar a na’urorin sadarwar da al’ummarta ke amfani dasu, kafin waya mai dauke da wannan tsarin ta iya amfana da tsarin kai tsaye.  Don haka, duk da cewa tsarin 5G sabon tsari ne, amma tuni a kasashe irin su Amurka, da Sin, da Ingila da sauran kasashe, tuni an fara amfani dashi.  Amma duk da haka, da ace wani dan Najeriya zai je wadancan kasashe sai yaga waya mai amfani da tsarin 5G, sai ya sayo yazo da ita kasar nan yana kwambo, ba abin da zai iya amfani dashi a jikin wayar wanda ya danganci 5G.  Saboda a Najeriya, har yanzu ba a tabbatar da tsarin ba tukun.

Shi yasa, bayanan da za su zo a sauran makonnin dake tafe, zasu kasance kamar tatsuniya ne ga galibin masu karatu.  Domin abubuwa ne na al’ajabi da a Najeriya dai bamu gani ba.  Duk kuwa abin da baka taba ganinsa ba, kuma mamakinsa ya zarce kima, to, imani da yarda da mai fadar maganar ne kadai zasu sa ka iya hararo su, ko ka yarda.

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Ma’anar 5G

Fasahar “5G” tsarin sadarwa ne na zamani mai dauke da hanyoyin sadarwar wayar salula da fasahar Intanet wadanda suka dara hanyoyin sadarwar salula na marhala ta hudu, wato: “4G – LTE”.  Duk da cewa an fara tunanin samar da wannan fasaha ne tun shekarar 2009, amma a aikace, kasashe da wasu kamfanoni sun fara gwajin fasahar ne cikin shekarar da ta gabata.  Kasashen sun hada da kasar Koriya ta Kudu (South Korea), da Amurka da sauransu, sai kamfanoni irin su Huawei da sauran makamantansu.

Daga cikin jerin marhalolin tsarin sadarwa na wayar salula a tarihin duniyar yau, wannan ita ce marhala ta biyar.  Kuma shi yasa ake kiran marhalar da suna: “5th Generation” ko “5G” a gajarce.  Wannan tsari dai ba wata kasa ce ko wani kamfanin sadarwa shi kadai ko ita kadai suka dauki nauyin aiwatar dashi ba.  A a, gamayya ce ta kungiyoyin sadarwar zamani, babu ma wata kasa daga cikin kasashen duniya a cikinsu, da suke zaman a musamman don yin Nazari da tunanin nakasar da ke tattare da tsarin dake gudanuwa, da kokarin samar da hanyoyin inganta shi.  Babbar hukumar dake lura da aikin wannan kungiya ta gamayya dai ita ce kungiyar daidaita ka’idoji da bunkasa tsarin sadarwar tarho ta duniya, wato: “International Telecommunication Union” ko “ITU” a gajarce.

Kokarin samar dan wannan sabon tsari na sadarwa dai ya biyo bayan nazari da akayi kan tsarin marhala ta hudu, wato: “4G – LTE”, wanda a halin yanzu shi ne ke kan kare zamaninsa a galibin kasashen da suka ci gaba a fannin sadarwa da tattalin arzikin kasa.  Daga cikin abubuwan da aka lura dasu kuwa akwai ‘yar tazarar saibi dake samuwa tsakanin sadda sako ya baro inda aka aiko shi, zuwa inda za a karbeshi.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Latency” a harshen fasahar sadarwa.  Sannan an lura tsarin 4G bai jure nauyin aiwatar da sadarwa tsakanin adadin kayayyakin sadarwa masu dimbin yawa a wuri daya.  Sannan a wannan zamani da muke ciki, a duk yini ana tara bayanai masu dimbin yawa a giza-gizan sadarwa, tsakanin mutane, da kamfanoni, da hukumomin gwamnatocin kasashe da kuma kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu.  Sarrafa wadannan bayanai don samun fa’ida da hasashen ci gaban rayuwa nan gaba, abu ne mai wahala karkashin tsarin sadarwa ta 4G.  Wannan yasa aka tsara ka’idojin sadarwa ta 5G wacce cikin sauki za a iya sarrafa wadannan dandazon bayanai, tare da aikawa da karbarsu ta wata fuska, cikin sauki.

Wadannan kadan ne cikin dalilan da suka haddasa kirkira da samar da ka’idojin sadarwa a marhala ta biyar da muke yunkurin shiga.

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