Saƙonnin Masu Karatu (2024) (2)

An buga wannan maƙala ne a jaridar AMINIYA ta ranar Jumma’a, 19 ga watan Afrailu, 2024.

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Fasahar Blockchain (Ci gaba)

Sadda suka gama nazari da fitar da wannan maƙalar bincike dai ba a ɗabbaƙa sakamakon binciken a aikace ba.  Har sai cikin shekarar 2008, lokacin da wani majahulin malami mai suna: “Nakamoto” ya fitar da maƙala kan yadda za a iya samar da wani sabon nau’in kuɗi da za a ƙirƙira, a aika, kuma ayi amfani dashi ta hanyar hanyoyi da na’urorin sadarwa na zamani tsakanin mutum-da-mutum, kai tsaye.  A cikn maƙalar ne yayi ishara ga fasahar Blockchain a matsayin maɗauki ko magudanar da za a iya amfani da ita wajen aiwatar da wannan sabon tsari na hada-hadar kuɗaɗe.

Wannan ke tabbatar da cewa, Bitcoin wani abu ne daban, kamar yadda fasahar Blockchain ita ma wata fasaha ce ta daban.  Alaƙar dake tsakaninsu kawai ita ce, a saman fasahar Blockchain ne fasahar Bitcoin ke gudanuwa.  Kuma wannan tsari ne ya daɗa bai wa tsarin Kirifto karɓuwa a idon masu ta’ammali dashi.  Saboda kariya, da tsaro, da kuma cin gashin kai wajen mu’amala.

Wannan fasaha ta Blockchain dai tana cikin manyan ginshiƙan da ake sa ran nan gaba za su tabbatar da tsarin alaƙoƙin kasuwanci tsakanin mutane da kintsa tsarin ayyukan hukumomin ƙasashe, da kuma manyan kamfanoni.  Ba don komai ba, sai don tsari ne da zai magance wasu daga cikin manyan ƙalubalen da duniya ke fuskanta a tsarin mu’amala a giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya na marhala ta biyu da muke ciki yanzu, wato: “Web 2.0”.  Waɗannan matsaloli kuwa sun haɗa da rashin amintuwa da juna, saboda matsalar zamba cikin aminci.  Da tsaiko da ake samu wajen tantance hada-hadar kudi a tsarin harkokin kuɗaɗe na al’ada da muke amfani dasu a yau – wanda ya shafi bankunan kasuwanci da manyan bankuna ƙasashe – da matsalar rashin ingancin bayanai saboda kutse da a kullum kamfanoni ko jama’a ke fama dashi a shafukansu na Intanet, da dai sauran matsaloli.

Siffofin Fasahar Blockchain

Rumbun Adana Bayanai

Wanna shi ake kira “Database” a harshen fasahar sadarwa na zamani.  Amma ya sha bamban da irin rumbun adana bayanai na al’ada da aka sani kafin shekarar 2008 (wadanda kuma har yanzu ake amfani dasu).  A yayin da rumbun adana bayanai na al’ada take adana bayanai a tsarin jadawali (wato: “Tables”), a tsarin Fasahar Blockchain ana adana bayanai ne a tsarin “Gungu-gungu”, wato: “Blocks”, ko “Chunks”.  Duk sadda wani ya shigar da bayanai a wannan rumbu, nan take ake za a dunkule shi zuwa gungun bayanai, wato: “Block”, sannan a hade shi cikin jerin gungun bayanan dake gudanuwa a tsarin, kai tsaye.  Shi yasa ake kiran tsarin da suna: Blockchain, wato: “Sarƙar gungun bayanai”.

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Gamammen Tsari

Wannan rumbun adana bayanai bai kebanci wani kamfani ko wata hukuma a wata kasa ba, a a, tsari ne da ya game duniya, karkashin dunkulallen tsarin sadarwa na Intanet.  Yadda kake iya hawa Intanet ba tare da neman iznin wata hukuma ba, a zahiri, haka wannan tsari na fasahar Blockchain yake aiki.  Rumbun adana bayanan a warwatse yake a giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya.  Duk sadda kayi rajista a tsarin, ka shigar da bayanai, akwai tsarin tantancewa da sakonka zai bi, da zarar tsarin ya gama tantance bayananka, nan take za a dunƙule shi cikin gungun bayanai (Block), a kuma lika shi a karshen jerin gungun bayanan dake gudanuwa.  Ko da wani yayi nasarar kutse ya sace kalmar sirrinka, ya buɗo wannan gungun bayanai (in ma zai iya kenan), ya canza wani abu, da zarar ya rufe shi, nan take tsarin zai sake yunƙurin tantance wannan gungun bayanai nashi, idan tsarin ya lura an canza wani abu, sai ya yanke shi daga jerin gungun bayanan rumbun adana bayanan gaba ɗaya.  Tsarin tantancewar zai gane haka ne ta hanyar kwanan watan dake dauke cikin bayanan.

A takaice dai, wannan tsari na fasahar Blockchain, gamammen tsari ne na taskar bayanan cinikayya da hada-hadar kasuwanci dake warwatse a giza-gizan sadarwa na duniya (Distributed Ledger System – DLS), wanda idan aka shigar da bayanai cikin taskar, ba’a a iya canzawa, sai dai a sake nade wani bayanin sabo, don ɗorawa daga inda aka tsaya.

Aminci da Kariya

Tsarin fasahar Blockchain an gina shi ne don tabbatar da cikakken kariya da samar da aminci ga masu ma’amala dashi.  Shi yasa duk inda aka samu wani sauyi a wani gungun bayanai da wani ya ɗora a baya, to, sai dai a yanke wannan ɓangare, a ci gaba da tafiya.  Wannan ke sa natsuwa da amintuwa da tsarin a zukatan masu ma’amala dashi.

Cin Gashin Kai

Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a baya, wannan fasaha ta Blockchain tsari ne da ke cin gashin kansa; ba wata ƙasa ce ta samar kuma take tafiyar ko gudanar dashi ba.  wannan ya sha bamban da rumbun adana bayanai da kamfanoni ko hukumomin ƙasashe ko mutane masu zaman kansu ke samarwa.  Ƙarkashin wannan tsari na fasahar Blockchain, dukkan bayanan da aka shigar suna ɗauke ne a mazubi ɗaya, amma duk wanda ke da rajista da rumbun bayanan na iya isa ga bayanansa a ko ina yake.  Sannan ko da wasu ‘yan dandatsa sun yi kutse cikin kwamfutarsa ko na wasu, ba su iya mallakar waɗannan bayanai.  Domin idan sun cakuda nasa bayanan ma, sai dai tsarin ya yanke nashi, amma na sauran jama’a na can ana ci gaba da gudanar dasu.

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